Questions tagged [blood]

The liquid that circulates in the arteries and veins of humans and other vertebrate animals, carrying oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the tissues of the body, or an internal bodily fluid that performs a similar function in invertebrates.

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Why is there a difference between venous bicarbonate and bicarbonate in ABG?

Lets say a serum blood test shows bicarbonate of 20mmol/l but an ABG of 15mmol/l, both tests taken 3 minutes apart in a person with acute metabolic acidosis with compensation. Can anyone explain why ...
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Does erythrocyte aggregation serve a useful function?

Wikipedia states that erythrocyte aggregation causes disease: Conversely, the presence of rouleaux is a cause of disease because it will restrict the flow of blood throughout the body because ...
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Is there a mathematical relationship between total blood volume and cardiac output / stroke volume?

I'm looking into the body's response to traumatic hypovolemia, and I was wondering if there exists a mathematical relationship between total blood volume (TBV) and stroke volume (SV). All of the ...
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Can I calculate the blood pressure and pulse based on a given blood loss

Is there a function, graph, guideline or rule where I can see how a change in blood volume changes other relevant values? E. g. for every 1% of blood volume lost, heart rate rises 2 beats per minute, ...
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How can I take blood pressure into the cardiac output formula?

I wanted to know if there is some kind of formula that can help me calculate the cardiac output. So, lets say we have a standing person. The StrokVolume should be around 100 cm2 for the average adult, ...
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Is low immature reticulocyte fraction after an acute hemolytic crisis normal?

All following data are theoretical and not real: A patient had a hemolytic crisis without anemia proven by elevated reticulocytes, elevated unconjugated bilirubin and normal hemoglobin and erythrocyte ...
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92 views

Would it make sense to use aspirin as a prophylactic against covid-related blood clotting?

Autopsies indicate blood clots are lethal in COVID-19. So what Is Known About COVID-19 and Abnormal Blood Clotting? I was trying to think of something that might cut down on deaths from covid-19, ...
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115 views

Haemopoiesis (blood cell development) in bone marrow

I am currently studying the textbook Hoffbrand's Essential Haematology, eighth edition, by A. Victor Hoffbrand and David P. Steensma. Chapter 1 Haemopoiesis says the following: During normal ...
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What happens when you put O+ blood in O- body

What happens when you put O+ blood in a O- body? I know O- can be put in everywhere but what happens, when you put a blood group in a body that would fit the group, but mismatches the rhesus factor. I ...
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89 views

Does vasodilation in one part of the body mean another part of the body must vasoconstrict?

The body has a set volume of blood, so when someone is given nitrates to vasodilate (primarily) their veins, would this not increase the total volume of the vessels in the body? If this is the case, I ...
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934 views

Does the blood removed from the body still have immunity?

I know that blood contains white blood cells (which attack pathogens). Suppose we take half a liter of blood out of the body and implant the virus into it. Can the white blood cells in that half a ...
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Why can't simple blood transfusions be used for treatment of COVID-19, instead of plasma transfusions? [closed]

It has been recently been shown that convalescent plasma from previously infected patients can be used to help others gain immunity against the disease. But why do we need to use plasma for this ...
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Is it possible for humans to be resistant to certain viral infections without having specific antibodies in their blood?

Popular understanding of how viruses work split immunity into four categories: Virus doesn't affect humans at all No immunity - will get worst possible infection, seems to be the case with COVID-19 ...
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Average temperature of blood versus core body temperature

I have read the blood is warmer than the same body's core temperature. The core temperature is known to be 37 degrees, and I have been told the average blood temperature is 38 degrees. This was in my ...
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A study about blood differences and the risk for COVID-19

On healthline it's mentioned a recent study that came out of Wuhan, China; it’s published on a website, but hasn’t yet been reviewed by peers. In the study, scientists looked at the blood types of ...
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Blood alcohol concentration levels depending on volumes and alcohol percentage

Will the blood alcohol concentration level be the same after consuming 100 ml of a 40% drink (i.e. vodka) and 200 ml of a 20% drink (i.e. wine)? Can we make a more general statement: the blood ...
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Is there a point of being an Organ Donor if my blood type is AB Negative?

What is the point of anyone being an organ donor if their blood type is AB Negative? What are the chances someone is going to need your organs at that specific time frame after you die? Or am I ...
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Why transfused blood has lower 2,3 - BPG levels

I read the following quote in the textbook Kaplan Biochemistry (2018 edition, page 183): Transfused blood has lower than expected 2,3 BPG levels, making it less efficient at delivering oxygen to ...
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Does blood pressure have a daily pattern?

before nothing I am not a doctor, I am a simple programmer that likes to read about medicial sciencies. I've read in this book that the blood pressure it very important; is it really? Then I have ...
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What's the primary body entrance + surface of infection for catching the flu?

I realize there are multiple ways, but if you tallied up all the people who caught the flu or a cold last year, what would be the majority... Entrance for infection: Mouth Nose Eyes Ears Skin Bio ...
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Crystalloid infusion during anaphylactic shock

My text book states that intravenous crystalloid infusion is a method of treating anaphylactic shock. I can't get why, as there is no fluid loss in case of anaphylactic shock, at least that is what ...
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How reliable is the determination method of reference ranges for blood tests?

A reference range is usually defined as the set of values 95 percent of the normal population falls within (that is, 95% prediction interval). It is determined by collecting data from vast numbers ...
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Being excluded from blood donation due to using protein supplementation

I used another clinic from the ones I usually donate blood. The doctor that was responsible for taking my history in regards to approving me as a donor after the usual questions asked me if I use ...
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960 views

Would gargling salt water every day increase sodium absorption levels?

Do you absorb sodium through your gums, mouth and throat when gargling and rinsing salt water? Considering the fact that sublingual medication is a very effective way for introducing substances ...
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197 views

How is blood cleared from the body after internal bleeding

How is blood that flows out of vessels during internal bleeding cleared from the area (by the body, not medical professionals) once the bleeding stops? I am assuming via the lymphatic system; but I've ...
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How to calculate my “approximate” mortality rate while in ICU?

To make a long story as short as possible for context, I was rushed to the ER while in cardiac arrest back in 2014. Heart stopped beating momentarily and lost oxygen to the part of my brain. None of ...
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How does Psoriasis change the biochemistry of blood?

I read somewhere that Psoriasis can increase the amount of uric acid in the bloodstream by about 10%, increasing the chance of gout:psoriasis Is this the only biochemical change in the bloodstream ...
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72 views

How many valves per distance are common in veins?

Veins have valves to prevent backflow of blood. I am looking for a value the indicates on average how far apart those valves would be. There are valves in most veins to prevent backflow. source ...
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Where are good abdominal places for measuring SO2 and heart rate via reflective pulse oximeter?

I'm trying to develop a belt (wearable device) from which I could measure belly stretch (exhalation, inhalation), heart pulse frequency and blood oxygen saturation data via optical EKG (reflective ...
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68 views

How does a blood transfusion directly from one person to another through a line work?

In Person of Interest, Shaw inserts a line into a guy's arm that goes directly into her arm for a blood transfusion. See clip: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eYQRa6IYf0A&t=83 What determines the ...
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High lyphocytes count in blood test

What is the lymphocytes counts limit which discriminates a recent infection from a CLL (Chronical Leukaemia Lymphocytosis)?
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Fatal adult-onset blood/vascular disorder

I'd like to know if there's a blood or vascular disease/disorder that fits, or could conceivably fit, all the following criteria, even if only in theory: Present from birth Onset of symptoms, or a ...
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56 views

At what speed would an average adult human male bleed out, if their arm was amputated?

I'm not sure what unit of measurement to ask this question in, but I suppose that pints per second would be the right way to think of things. Currently writing a short story and i'd like to add some ...
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“Blood rushing to the head” during handstands: How is it regulated?

Many people who start practicing handstands or headstands report discomfort in their head, ranging from a mild sense of fullness to "my head is going to explode." The standard response in online ...
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Hormone Definitions and Measurements [closed]

How are human hormones defined in the body and how are they measured? I understand that blood tests can be used to measure the amount of a hormone in the body, but how do we know which hormone ...
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How does the circulatory system know where to distribute oxygen and nutrients?

There is lots of information online about the circulatory system, but it never seems to answer the question of "targeting". When there is a change in the relative demand for blood, how does the ...
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Is lipaemia the same as hyperlipidemia?

I'm translating a Russian text and one of the sentences goes like this: Среди сывороток были образцы с гемолизом и липемией. The serum samples contained samples with hemolysis and lipaemia. I ...
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Why can't we give blood within 8 days after taking an anti-inflammatory?

I'm used to regularly giving my blood and other blood components (plasma and platelets), but I was surprised the other day to see that one should not proceed to the donation if they consumed anti-...
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Can HIV patients get further infected by their own blood?

A person without HIV can get infected with HIV by, blood already infected with the virus entering into their body (for example). Can HIV patients get further infected by the for example ingestion of ...
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What diseases cause a rapid fall in hemoglobin count? [closed]

Which diseases would be likely to cause a fairly rapid decline in hemoglobin count? In this particular case, hemoglobin count went from 7.6 to 6.4 in 48 hours, despite 2 units of hemoglobin being ...
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After traumatic injury, what are the red “chunks” a victim coughs up? [closed]

Recently, I witnessed a pedestrian-vehicle collision. As I approached, nobody was rendering aid, so I took it upon myself to do so. The man wasn't breathing, so I applied basic first aid by tilting ...
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Mechanism of retrograde propagation of arterial thrombi

Quoting from _Robbins Basic Pathology 9th ed. Thrombi are focally attached to the underlying vascular surface and tend to propagate toward the heart; thus, arterial thrombi grow in a ...
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How do doctors deal with fear of blood?

For me personally it is very hard to watch scenes from movies/documentaries where the surgeon cuts patient's skin. I don't get any discomfort from seeing blood or wounds but it's almost unbearable to ...
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Why do surgeons wear blue aprons during surgeries?

In most cases, the surgeon wears a white apron, but during a surgery he is wearing a blue apron, why blue?
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How much time will take for receiving 1 bag blood?

I want an idea about time spent for taking 1 bag blood. I have a blood donor he will donate 1 bag blood. After taking his blood it will be transferred to a patient. Would anyone provide an idea how ...
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Put a finger in it? When is it appropriate to stop a bleed with your finger?

Can a arterial bleed be stopped by putting your finger/s in it? Like the one in your leg or a place where pressure can't be placed normally?
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ABO blood type mismatch

I have a question about blood types and seeming hereditary contradictions. The above image of an Eldoncard blood test, which shows quite clearly that the testee has AB- type blood. (see image!). The ...
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Difference between Contusion, Haemorrage and Hematoma?

As per wikipedia these are the definitions: A contusion, commonly known as a bruise, is a type of hematoma of tissue[1] in which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by trauma, allowing ...
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Do beets dye your blood purple?

I was warned recently that eating beets can cause reddish-purple urine, which got me thinking. Blood is filtered by the kidneys to produce urine, high school biology. So if a meal of beets can dye ...
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What keeps our organs in place?

Do they float iniside our "blood blob inside our body" or they are connected to our muscles ?