What are the standard procedures of detecting intestinal parasites in the body (e.g. Ascaris lumbricoides) and what are the methods to get rid of them in case they're present?
Can CT scan detect them, or you've to do some special tests?
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The intestinal and luminal protozoa are normally identified in stool specimens, the blood protozoa by examination of blood films with microscopy (malaria), and lymph node biopsy and serological testing (toxoplasmosis), nematodes, cestodes and trematodes by identifying eggs/larvae in stool/sputum/urine specimens. Advanced disease states might require imaging such as MRI of the central nervous system in neurocystercicosis.
Treatment is specific for the parasite in question.
You can read textbook chapters on parasitology online.
Intestinal parasites can be detected by stool tests (and additional blood tests if necessary). Note that these tests are often false negative, which means they may not detect parasites even if you have them, so if you still suspect you have parasites, you need to repeat the tests. Treatment is with antiparasitic drugs dependent on the type of parasite.
When parasites invade other body organs, CT, MRI or organ biopsy can be used.
On Centers of Disease Control and Prevention you have an extensive A-Z list of parasitic diseases with links to detailed descriptions of the symptoms, tests and treatment.