Surprisingly, no. Hot water does kill bacteria, but what's comfortable for your hands is also pretty comfortable for bacteria. Most pathogens start to die off around 60°C to 70°C (140°F to 158°F)1, but water from the "hot" tap in a sink is typically below that (40° to 55°C or 104° to 131°F)2. In order to kill bacteria, the water would have to be way too hot for you to tolerate.
According to National Geographic, in Washing Hands in Hot Water Wastes Energy:
Carrico said that after a review of the scientific literature, her team found "no evidence that using hot water that a person could stand would have any benefit in killing bacteria." Even water as cold as 40°F (4.4°C) appeared to reduce bacteria as well as hotter water, if hands were scrubbed, rinsed, and dried properly.
This agrees with the World Health Organization's conclusion3:
Water temperature -
Apart from the issue of skin tolerance and level of comfort,
water temperature does not appear to be a critical factor for
microbial removal from hands being washed. In contrast, in a
study comparing water temperatures of 4 °C, 20 °C and 40 °C,
warmer temperatures have been shown to be very significantly
associated with skin irritation. The use of very hot water for
handwashing should therefore be avoided as it increases the
likelihood of skin damage.
There are a number of studies that have looked into water temperature and handwashing and concluded that there is little to no added benefit to washing with hotter water, for example:
Water temperature as a factor in handwashing efficacy.. Michaels, B., Gangar, V., Schultz, A., Arenas, M., Curiale, M., Ayers, T. and Paulson, D. (2002), Food Service Technology, 2: 139–149
The Environmental Cost of Misinformation: Why the Recommendation to Use Elevated Temperatures for Handwashing is Problematic.
Carrico AR, Spoden M, Wallston KA, Vandenbergh MP.
Int J Consum Stud. 2013 Jul 1;37(4):433-441. (This study examines beliefs about handwashing and unintended economic or climate effects, rather than water temperature directly.)
It's all about the technique
The CDC recommends using soap, scrubbing for at least 20 seconds, and rinsing under running water4. Based on the currently available scientific literature, it does not recommend using hotter water, as it does not seem to have an effect.
In short, scrubbing and using soap are far more effective for hand-washing than using hot water is.