Although a root canal removes the pulp from the tooth (and the nerve along with it), that doesn't make the tooth immune to infection and the resulting pain. If the tooth or crown is broken or cracked, that can provide a pathway for bacteria to reinfect the tissues beneath and surrounding the tooth, as shown in the image below:
As explained at the link:
New decay can expose the root canal filling material to bacteria, causing a new infection in the tooth.
A loose, cracked or broken crown or filling can expose the tooth to new infection.
A tooth sustains a fracture.
As you might imagine, the new infection at the base of the tooth could cause pain since the nerves surrounding the tooth remain intact. Obviously, only a dentist or endodontist can tell you if this is what happened and how it should be treated. Loss of the tooth is possible, especially if you delay care.