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Is the Fight or Flight response considered voluntary or involuntary? can this response be trained? Meditation?

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The "fight or flight response" occurs under the control of the autonomic nervous system, which is to a great degree (but not completely) involuntary.

The autonomic nervous system regulates certain body processes, such as blood pressure and the rate of breathing. This system works automatically (autonomously), without a person’s conscious effort.

You can exert some control over it, but only really a little bit unless you train rigorously for years.

For example, breathing is controlled by the ANS. People might be able - with a very great effort - to hold their breath until they pass out, but the ANS will immediately take over once they do pass out and they will breathe. The ANS, in other words, usually 'wins out'.

Likewise, people can lower their heart rates and blood pressure with meditation and biofeedback (also "integrative body–mind training", according to one Chinese researcher.) But if a vicious, salivating, snapping dog jumps out at you from behind a bush, your heart rate and blood pressure will most certainly go up involuntarily, which is not necessarily a bad thing. That same ANS response allows you to run away faster or fight off the dog a bit more forcefully.

Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System
Central and autonomic nervous system interaction is altered by short-term meditation
Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A Pilot Study

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