Have any studies been done on the health outcomes of children conceived after removal of their mothers' IUDs vs. children whose mothers never had IUDs?
This study is close to what I'm looking for: Development of human embryos in the presence of a copper intrauterine device. But in the case of this study, only women who conceived with the IUD still inserted were included, the fetuses were only examined between 7-12 weeks of gestation (not after they had come to term), and women included in the study had only copper IUDs (no hormonal IUDs).
Essentially, my question is asking whether any studies have been done on the potential teratogenicity of IUDs after they have been removed, or on other health effects on the children other than birth defects.
As Bleyl and Schoenwolf wrote here, "susceptibility to teratogen exposure for a given conceptus actually begins even prior to when it is conceived": What Is the Timeline of Important Events During Pregnancy that May Be Disrupted by a Teratogenic Exposure?
Other studies of pre-conception teratogenicity of various conditions, treatments, and drugs include:
- "Dispensing of potentially teratogenic drugs before conception and during pregnancy" by Zomerdijk et al. (BJOG, 2014)
- "Teratogenic Risk with Etretinate and Acitretin Treatment" by Geiger et al. (Dermatology, 1994)
- "Teratogenicity Associated With Pre-Existing and Gestational Diabetes" by Allen et al. (JOGC, 2007)