Covaxin is an inactivated virus-based COVID-19 vaccine developed by Bharat Biotech. Recently, the Brazilian health regulator Anvisa raised few concerns regarding Covaxin, one of which was- use of a novel imidazoquinoline adjuvant that may increase the chance of developing an autoimmune disease.

Use of an innovative substance in the vaccine formula, imidazoquinoline or IMDG, not yet used commercially in any approved vaccine in the world. According to GGMED, this additional drug may be related to the development of autoimmune disease;

How risky is IMDG? What is its short-term and long-term side effects? Why is it associated with autoimmune diseases? What are some studies that show this? Should Covaxin be considered a safe Vaccine, with regard to this concern?

Edit: On GGMED website, I found links to following papers with regard to this matter.

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/toll-like-receptor-7
  2. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.03054/full
  • The safety experiments they conducted are summarized in this paper around where table 2 is. I have no idea what the claim about it being "related to the development of autoimmune disease" is based on. IMDG is by design giong to bias the immune response towards Th1 (to reduce the risk of ERD from whole-virus vaccines).
    – Fizz
    Aug 26 at 13:43
  • This recent review of that class of compounds may also be useful/informative.
    – Fizz
    Aug 26 at 13:58

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