As indicated in the first answer, the first figure is for a clinical trial. This kind of figure is often called a "Clinical Trial Design Schematic" or simply a "Schematic for a Clinical Trial."
Here are some other examples of trials that present such figures and label them as “clinical trial design schematic” or “schematic.”
There appear to be no rules for creating this kind of figure for a trial. Time is consistently on the x-axis.
The second two figures appear to be "schematics" that show the overall treatment plan for patients with cancer. There does not appear to be a specific name for this kind of graphic presentation of a treatment plan. There do not appear to be official rules for how these graphics are drawn. Time is consistently on the x-axis.
Oncology treatment plans are often shown graphically as "algorithms." This is a figure that shows the "algorithm" for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in 2013 from the Leukemia and Bone Marrow Transplant Program of British Columbia.
These (roughly) follow "rules" for flow charts as they are described in widely accessible public documents (WIKIPEDIA).