I have heard of from reading numerous journal articles, and newspaper/TV reports:

  • age > 70
  • age < 5
  • obesity
  • smoker cigarettes or pot
  • male
  • blood group not group O
  • poor socio economic status
  • crowded and multi-generational living
  • black, hispanic
  • hypertension
  • cardio respiratory disease
  • diabetes 1+2
  • immunosuppression
  • cancer
  • religious beliefs

Note that some of these are inextricably linked to each other.

Any others?

  • 1
    I dont think there is any evidence of race being a risk factor, I would like to see your sources. Commented Apr 12, 2020 at 21:13
  • 3
    Religious beliefs? I don't think whatever source you got this list from is trustworthy. Commented Apr 12, 2020 at 21:18
  • If you require explanation then one process is to ask another question. Commented Apr 12, 2020 at 22:03
  • @GrahamChiu Your question would be improved by providing references for race and religion. I know why you included those, but not everyone might.
    – Carey Gregory
    Commented Apr 12, 2020 at 23:01
  • 3
    @user2357112supportsMonica If your religious belief requires you to sit together with a few hundred people for a few hours a week, then of course it's a risk factor. Commented Apr 13, 2020 at 0:01

2 Answers 2


A pre-publication study at NYU in New York City looked at the risk factors for more severe COVID-19 disease.

These risks included older age, especially age over 75, as well as obesity (BMI>40), and congestive heart failure, which conferred dramatically higher odds of being hospitalized for COVID-19.

The strongest risk factor was low oxygen levels upon presentation in the E.R.


According to the authors’ abstract:

Strongest hospitalization risks were age ≥75 years (OR 66.8, 95% CI, 44.7-102.6), age 65-74 (OR 10.9, 95% CI, 8.35-14.34), BMI>40 (OR 6.2, 95% CI, 4.2-9.3), and heart failure (OR 4.3 95% CI, 1.9-11.2). Strongest critical illness risks were admission oxygen saturation <88% (OR 6.99, 95% CI 4.5-11.0), d-dimer>2500 (OR 6.9, 95% CI, 3.2-15.2), ferritin >2500 (OR 6.9, 95% CI, 3.2-15.2), and C-reactive protein (CRP) >200 (OR 5.78, 95% CI, 2.6-13.8). In the decision tree for admission, the most important features were age >65 and obesity; for critical illness, the most important was SpO2<88, followed by procalcitonin >0.5, troponin <0.1 (protective), age >64 and CRP>200. Conclusions: Age and comorbidities are powerful predictors of hospitalization; however, admission oxygen impairment and markers of inflammation are most strongly associated with critical illness.

  • 1
    High CRP and ferritin are markers for IL-6 suggestive of ARDS Commented Apr 12, 2020 at 20:38

From https://www.businessinsider.com/us-coronavirus-hospitalizations-underlying-health-conditions-cdc-2020-3 (mirror 1, mirror 2):

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Counts are among the 7162 cases with completed information on pre-existing conditions:

  • Chronic liver disease
  • Current smoker
  • Former smoker
  • Chronic renal disease
  • Immunocompromised
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Chronic lung disease
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Other chronic disease

Source: CDC Data as of March 28, 2020 at 12 pm EST.

Also: What are the genetic predispositions, if any, for covid-19?

  • Hasn't really added to what I know. Anything else? Commented Apr 12, 2020 at 12:16
  • @GrahamChiu e.g. chronic lung/liver disease. Also added some severity metrics. Commented Apr 12, 2020 at 12:17

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