I have read some webpages mentioning that intermittent fasting increases the odds of getting gallstones. E.g., https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/gallstones:
As the body metabolizes fat during rapid weight loss, it causes the liver to secrete extra cholesterol into bile, which can cause gallstones. Fasting. Fasting decreases gallbladder movement, which causes the bile to become overconcentrated with cholesterol.
However, some other webpages mentions intermittent fasting reduces the odds of getting gallstones, e.g. https://www.drberg.com/blog/will-intermittent-fasting-cause-gallstones#Title4:
Together, keto and intermittent fasting will help keep your gallbladder healthy and go a long way toward prevention of gallstones.
Have scientific studies confirm that intermittent fasting (e.g. 16 hours of fasting per day) actually increases or decreases the odds of getting gallstones, assuming a healthy diet?