Psychosurgery has a controversial history and despite modifications still raises serious questions about benefit, risks, and the adequacy with which consent is obtained. Its continued use is defended by references to the "therapeutic imperative" to do something in the case of psychiatric patients who have not responded to other forms of treatment, and the evidence that some patients see improvement in their symptoms following surgery.1
It seems that for very severe cases of epilepsy this procedure is still considered and possibly used, according to this neurosurgery study of 2004 Temporal lobotomy in the surgical management of epilepsy, but I'm not sure if that's really the same procedure as the transorbital lobotomy used in psychosurgery.
While I believe that medical professionals try within their best abilities to diagnose and treat patients at best. Apparently in some cases, as a matter of further damage control measures need to be taken. Yet, the measure of likely doing permanent damage to a brain with such procedure seems barbaric. Is this procedure therefore medically considered ethical and what checks and balances are in place before moving forward with such a procedure?
Lastly, I can imagine that in some cases (such as epilepsy) modern Deep Brain Stimulation techniques might be the preferable (less permanent) way to go. Can DBS possibly completely eradicate the need for lobotomies in that case or even in all cases where lobotomies would be considered?