Scurvy, as you've said, is caused by a lack of vitamin C. This is an essential molecule in the construction of collagen, one of the main components of connective tissue in the body. Since many tissues contain vitamin C, it seems reasonable that eating different parts of an animal could give you enough to stave off scurvy.
There are some problems with this, however. Almost all of the significant sources of vitamin C are plant-based. Additionally heat can quickly denature Vitamin C, reducing concentrations in cooked foods (this data is for vegetables; I could not find data for meat). In human beings the liver, adrenals, and pancreas have the highest concentrations of vitamin C at about 0.15 mg/g (this concentration would presumably be lower in people with scurvy, though I could not find any evidence on this). The average human liver weighs 1500 g. The pancreas is small (100g) relative to this, with the adrenals being small enough to be a rounding error (11g combined).
If each sailor had an average liver and pancreas with the vitamin C concentration of a person without scurvy, eating those organs raw would give you 1600*0.15= 240 mg of vitamin C. Eating them cooked would, if meat follows the same trend as vegetables, give you about half that (120 mg).
6.5-10 mg of Vitamin C a day is enough to cure scurvy.
Therefore, based on the available evidence, if each cannibalistic sailor ate a cooked liver every 2 weeks or a raw liver every month, they likely would have gotten enough vitamin C to stave off scurvy.
And that's the weirdest stackexchange question I've ever answered.