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Relating to the average patient's meal, which foods and how would the portion size be modified in order to meet Dietary Guidelines.

EDIT: In other words, what to think about when designing vegan meals in hospitals?

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    Nutrition questions are on topic here only when they're directly related to medical treatments. You mention "average patients" but what is an average patient? And what do vegans have to do with this? Your question is very unclear. – Carey Gregory Aug 14 '19 at 1:24
  • I consider 'the average patient' to be more stable or closer to normal in terms of health, such as any patient in a long-term care facility. – aitía Aug 14 '19 at 1:26
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    I'm very hesitant as to whether this should be on topic but at a minimum you should edit those stipulations into the question. – Bryan Krause Aug 14 '19 at 3:33
  • You linked to Canada's Dietary Guidelines, but can you link directly to a page that says which foods patterns (macronutrient percentages, daily amounts of nutrients) these guidelines recommend. – Jan Aug 14 '19 at 8:05
  • I haven't found this information specifically yet, which is why I am asking. – aitía Aug 14 '19 at 13:55
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I've found 2019 Canada's Dietary Guidelines - full version for professionals (easy to read, references to scientific evidence).

Recommended intakes for macronutrients in a 2,000 Calorie/day diet: (RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance is the amount that should be sufficient for most adults ; AMDR = Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (in % of total energy intake); links to vegan foods included:

  • Carbohydrate: RDA: 130 g/day ; AMDR: 45-65% of total energy
    • Fiber: 21-30 g/day
    • Free sugars (in fruit juices or added as in sweetened beverages): <10% of total energy (<50 g)
  • Protein: RDA = 0.80 g/kg body weigh/day (56 g/70 kg man; 46 g/58 kg woman); AMDR = 10-35% of total energy
  • Fat: AMDR = 20-35% of total energy

Recommended intakes for micronutrients:

An "average meal" in a hospital can refer to a healthy meal intended for an omnivore person with no special dietary needs. Vegan meals in hospitals, which do not contain meat, fish, eggs and milk, should contain enough iron and protein from plant sources.

Plant foods rich in iron (USDA.gov):

  • Beans, peas, lentils
  • Cereals ready-to-eat (fortified)
  • Sunflower and pumpkin seeds
  • Nuts: cashew, pine
  • Lupins
  • Spinach
  • Grains: amaranth, barley, cornmeal, kamut, oats, quinoa, rye, semolina, shorghum, spelt
  • Beets
  • Dried figs

Plant foods high in protein (>10 g/serving) and low in fat (<10 g/serving)(USDA.gov):

  • Lupins
  • Beans, lentils and peas (most types)
  • Grains: cornmeal, quinoa, spelt, triticale
  • Fermented soy: hummus, tempeh, tofu

Foods high in protein but also in fat include most nuts and seeds.

Maybe the most appropriate beverages are those that are low in sugar: plain or mineral water, vegetable juices, tea.

Vegan patients who stay in a hospital for several months may also benefit from vitamin D and B12 supplements.

When designing vegan meals in hospitals, one can use the info from USDA Food Composition Database, linked above.

  • Thank you for detailing in your response! – aitía Aug 14 '19 at 15:28
  • @aitía, I've found the full version of Canada's Dietary Guidelines and I included recommended amounts of macronutrients. – Jan Aug 16 '19 at 9:17

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