PRESCRIBED PROBIOTICS AND ANTIBIOTIC-ASSOCIATED DIARRHEA
There seems to be moderate evidence that probiotic supplements can reduce the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
The use of probiotics to prevent Clostridium difficile diarrhea associated with antibiotic use (Cochrane.org, 2017)
Based on this systematic review and meta-analysis of 31 randomized
controlled trials including 8672 patients, moderate certainty
evidence suggests that probiotics are effective for preventing CDAD
[C. difficile-associated diarrhea after antibiotic use].
Comparative efficacy and tolerability of probiotics for antibiotic-associated diarrhea: Systematic review with network meta-analysis (PubMed, 2018)
LGG [Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ] is probably the best option to
consider when AAD is indicated. L. casei appears to be the most
efficacious choice when associated with severe C. difficile-related
A practical guide for probiotics applied to the case of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in The Netherlands (BMC Gastroenterology, 2018)
After systematic review of available literature, they conclude that:
...there is sufficient evidence to make a recommendation for the use
of specific probiotic products for the prevention of antibiotic
associated diarrhea. In particular, we provide a three-star
recommendation for preparations with...the probiotic strain
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.
Probiotics for the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Outpatients—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (MDPI, 2017)
...the overall quality of the included studies was moderate...The
results suggests that probiotic use may be beneficial in the
prevention of AAD among outpatients.
Timely Use of Probiotics in Hospitalized Adults Prevents Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review With Meta-Regression Analysis (Gatroenterology, 2017)
...we found evidence that administration of probiotics closer to the
first dose of antibiotic reduces the risk of CDI by >50% in
COMMERCIAL PROBIOTICS AND OVERALL HEALTH
There seems to be insufficient evidence to claim that commercially available probiotic capsules or foods, such as yogurt, kefir, cheese, sauerkraut, kombucha and kimchi, help in overall health. Even if they "help with the gut flora overall," this dos not already mean they are beneficial for health.
What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about probiotics as preventive interventions? (PubMed, 2107)
Despite the marketing and the benefits associated with probiotics,
there is little scientific evidence supporting the use of probiotics.
None of the reviews provided any high-quality evidence for prevention
of illnesses through use of probiotics.
Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis (theBMJ, 2002)
Commercially available strains are being marketed in capsules and
yoghurt based drinks, but their potential benefit needs further
investigation. It would be wrong to credit the proved benefits of one
strain to an untested but closely related strain.