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I know that we have a sense that allows the brain to keep track of the locations of each of our limbs, digits, etcetera, but I can never remember what it is called. I would guess that most people aren't aware that this sense even exists, although life would be very difficult without it (you know how hard it is to walk when you have a "dead [i.e., numb] leg"? Imagine that, in all your limbs, all the time).

What is the technical term for this sense?

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This so-called sixth sense is called kinesthesia or proprioception. There are some slight differences between the two, in that kinesthesia only refers to moving parts, whereas your proprioceptive sense can identify the position of your body even when still.

kin·es·the·sia

awareness of the position and movement of the parts of the body by means of sensory organs (proprioceptors) in the muscles and joints.

pro·pri·o·cep·tion

the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.

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    To complement this answer, the actual biological component that enables this sense are muscle spindles, which report the tension of a muscle to the central nervous system. – DevSolar Jul 15 '15 at 11:11

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