In general any cellular material within the vitreous may cause eye floaters, for example red blood cells as a result of hemorrhage and white blood cells as a result of infection or inflammation. So cause of it should be always determine by a doctor (ophthalmologist). Abnormal eye floaters are associated with bleeding in the vitreous from diabetic retinopathy, retinal tears, retinal detachment or large degrees of nearsightedness. If floaters are accompanied by flashes of light or a loss of side vision, seek medical advice immediately.
Most eye floaters decrease/reduce in size on their own due to absorption through the natural processes within the eye. The brain also adapts to the floaters, teaching the eyes to become less aware of them. With age almost everyone has it, but some are more aware than the others.
There are no safe and proven methods to cure in both safe and effective way, however appropriate anti-inflammatory drugs or antibiotics prescribed by your doctor could reduce the number of white blood cells which are results of inflammation are common types of cellular material causing eye floaters. No other medications or eye drops have been proven effective in the treatment of eye floaters.
The vitreous itself can also be surgically removed by vitrectomy. It removes the actual vitreous from the eye, eliminating the eye floaters in the process, but it also increase risk of retinal detachment or cataract, so surgery should only be used as a treatment for eye floaters in extreme cases. Some laser procedures are also used to get rid of floaters, but they also contain risks.
Some health professionals believe that certain nutritional supplements and lifestyle (e.g. reducing stress) changes may help get rid of eye floaters as well as certain herbs, vitamins and odine-containing products have been touted as effective in decreasing eye floaters (none of these have been proven effective in clinical trials).
These might include antioxidant vitamins, MSM eyedrops and hyaluronic acid to keep the eye hydrated (See: How to Reduce Floaters), for example:
Antioxidant vitamins (such as turmeric, wild rose hip, propolis concentrate and hawthorn berry) in concert with other vitamins, are proven to be effective in treating macular degeneration, but not in reducing floaters. (source)
MSM eyedrops. MSM, or methylsulfonylmethane (dimethyl sulfone), is a widely-used nutritional supplement, most notably for arthritis. For uses other than arthritis, however, studies show only dubious results. (source)
Ginko biloba has been proven effective in increasing ocular blood flow and is used by patients suffering from glaucoma. (study)
Lysine is a vasodilator, which means that it widens blood vessels, particular in large veins. Lysine has proven effective in widening blood vessels in some areas, but not necessarily in the eyes. (study)
Bilberry is used both for improving eyesight and for widening blood vessels (source). More tests are needed to investigate the efficacy of bilberry in treating floaters.
Nutrients which are important in managing eye floaters according to NaturalEyeCare:
Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan) is a large molecule found in the vitreous gel which it is believed contributes to its gel-like quality and may also support related connective tissue. Elsewhere in the body it is found in the gel-like fluid that lubricates joints and it is a component of the tissue healing process. As we age, the amount of hyaluronan in the body decreases.
Hyaluronic acid has been shown to be effective in helping eyes heal after cataract surgery. (source)
Glucosamine sulfate helps maintain connective tissue integrity. Some floaters are caused by disintegration of the lining of the vitreous sac. This nutrient may help slow down the natural aging effect on a weakening vitreous. Many people have noted an increase in floaters when they have joint disorders which may be related to chronic, systemic inflammation and its effect on eye health.
Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that is essential for overall eye health. Since floaters are often the result of vitreous tears/detachments and/or clumping of the vitreous due to aging, vitamin C plays a role in blood and lymph circulation, waste elimination and supporting connective tissue. It may play a role in supporting the body in breaking down eye floaters. Learn more about the role of vitamin C in the body.
This amino acid can assist in removal of heavy metals and toxins that can contribute to eye disease. Methionine has a role in the body's synthesis of cysteine and taurine, two other important amino acids for vision health.
The carbohydrate inositol plays a role in moderating levels of calcium in the cell membrane and within each cell, which in turn plays a role in protecting the vitreous.
Calcium supports healthy connective tissue of the eye and throughout the body. Researchers have found that low levels of calcium (in proportion to phosphorus) is tied to increases in floaters.
Zinc, Copper & Chromium
Zinc has some antioxidant characteristics. It plays a major role in bringing Vitamin A from the liver to the retina and helps Vitamin A create a protective pigment called melanin. Zinc also helps support the health of tiny capillaries in the eye, which are essential in nourishing the retina and related connective tissue. Zinc and copper, in balance, help support a proper acid balance in the body, which in turn helps may help avoid development of new floaters. Chromium may help limit nearsightedness, a risk factor for eye floaters. Chromium also has a role in sugar balance in the body.