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When a person donates bone marrow, does it weaken the body, affect health and/or shorten life span? Does it adversely weaken the body permanently? What are some risks to bear in mind before one agrees to donate bone marrow?

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Not really, not in any long term way. The purpose of bone marrow is (Most often) to provide clean slates (The scientific term being "stem cells") for the production of platelets (Helps with blood clotting), red blood cells (Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide to tissues), and white blood cells (Fights infection). Usually only two to three percent of bone marrow is extracted when donating. The bone marrow will likely regenerate within a few weeks. The donation of bone marrow won't endanger anything (Except perhaps make pathogens slightly more dangerous), and the bone marrow will grow back in a few weeks. It's less dangerous than giving blood.

EDIT:

I apologize for getting my facts wrong. The use of general anesthesia may leave you feeling tired after the surgery (Although you will be kept until you recover from the anesthesia's effects), and as the marrow is taken from your pelvic bone, you will likely be sore for a week or so, resulting in no long term damage, posing no risk to your daily life. On the other hand, in blood donation, afterwards you can expect to feel nauseous, and have the potential to bleed profusely if you perform any "Heavy lifting," posing a possible risk to you and possibly your surroundings, if you work in any job which requires operating machinery. Ergo, donating bone marrow is still less dangerous than donating blood.

https://bethematch.org/support-the-cause/donate-bone-marrow/donation-process/ https://bethematch.org/transplant-basics/how-marrow-donation-works/myths-and-facts-about-bone-marrow-donation/ https://bloodcell.transplant.hrsa.gov/donor/donating/index.html http://m.kidshealth.org/en/teens/donating-blood.html https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/bone-marrow/basics/risks/prc-20020055

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    Sources supporting your answer are required here. Thar's especially true when you make claims such as blood donations being more dangerous than marrow donations. – Carey Gregory Dec 26 '17 at 15:08

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