Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is caused by mutation in genes namely PKD1, PKD2, and PKHD1. In this disease cysts are formed in kidneys. The growth of cysts can result in kidney failure. Cysts may also spread in other organs,such as livee, blood vessels in the brain and heart. This disease is classified into two types: Autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD) and Autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD). ADKPD is the most common type of inherited kidney disease and symptoms may appear later in life. Autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD) is a rare genetic condition. Symptoms of this disease start before child's birth and causes life-threatening problems in infants.
ADPKD is not difficult to diagnose, if one has family history of this disorder. In case of patients who don't have family history of ADPKD, it is difficult to diagnose. This can be diagnosed with ultrasound or genetic testing.
As it is disease caused due to genetic mutation, it can't be cured or prevented. But yes, early detection and treatment can prevent mortality and minimize morbidity. Prenatal screening and genetic counselling can reduce the incidence of inherited disorders. And by making some lifestyle changes one can control this disease.
And, new therapeutic interventions using gene therapy mainly CRISPR will definitely cure this disease permanently.