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What is the differences between the professions and license requirement of pathologist and biotechnologist in New York?

I asked this because this site is also for medical student and professionist.

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To preface this, I do not know the laws pertinent to the state of New York. This answer discusses the difference between the professions and licensing in general. State licensing boards may publish state-specific laws.

The term pathologist is usually used to refer to a physician specialist (MD or DO) who goes through medical school and does a pathology residency (after-graduation training that nearly all physicians do). There are different divisions within pathology that some pathologists can specialize in.

Pathologists in general are specialists in the analysis of anatomical structures and histology (tissues and cells) and all the things that could go wrong with them - diseases, disorders, injuries, and other destructive processes. A pathologist in a hospital may, for example, receive biopsies to check for cancer, blood smears to look for abnormalities, autopsies, forensics, etc. They have a broad base of skills and knowledge that can be valuable in many applications.

Like any other kind of physician, they can choose to do things other than practice in clinical settings - they may do research or product design or advising or policy...etc.

Wikipedia defines biotechnology as:

"any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use"... Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of bioengineering, biomedical engineering, biomanufacturing, molecular engineering, etc.

The possible types of endeavors in biotechnology are very diverse, but overall differ from pathology in most forms of practice, although their paths may cross. A pathologist might be able to engage in biotechnology, whereas a biotechnologist could not practice as a medical pathologist without going to medical school. But an MD/DO is not the only route into the field of pathology - there are pathology technicians that assist pathologists, there are PhDs in pathology that do research similar to the research pathologists might do, and other related professions.

It seems that the general field of biotechnology can be entered in different paths, but there are actual Bio Technology Programs (e.g. Northwestern that are PhD level training.

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