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I've looked at dozens of websites, more than half associated with universities, and I still can't figure out which foods are high in purine and which are not.

What I do is try to compare the purine content, like per 100 grams, and go from there. But many guidelines don't give you the number, and instead say which ones are "high" and which are "medium" or which are "safe" to eat and which not.

For instance mushroom has been mentioned as both high purine and low purine. One site mentions tuna as something to be avoided while another says it's safe to eat. Some sites mention the actual purine content but only for a limited number of foods. And I'm not sure how accurate their numbers are, given that other sites don't agree.

For instance, Wiki links to this non-university page which gives purine content for a limited number of foods: dietaryfiberfood.com: Gout: List of High and Low Purine Foods to Pay Attention

In any event, I'd appreciate it if you could link me to a paper or book or site that is both comprehensive and accurate, in terms of listing purine content of different kinds of food expressed in measured numbers.

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On J-Stage, you have extensive lists of foods (by food groups) high in purines (mg/100 g).

Such lists can be misleading, because it is not only the amount of purines in the food but also a type of food that can be associated with gout risk.

Mayo Clinic:

  • Studies have shown that vegetables high in purines do not increase the risk of gout or recurring gout attacks. A healthy diet based on lots of fruits and vegetables can include high-purine vegetables, such as asparagus, spinach, peas, cauliflower or mushrooms. You can also eat beans or lentils, which are moderately high in purines but are also a good source of protein.
  • Avoid meats such as liver, kidney and sweetbreads, which have high purine levels and contribute to high blood levels of uric acid.
  • Avoid the following types of seafood, which are higher in purines than others: anchovies, herring, sardines, mussels, scallops, trout, haddock, mackerel and tuna.

Other sources with similar claims:

  • Gout: a review of non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors PubMed Central
  • What can I do on my own to prevent gout attacks? PubMed Health

Other possible dietary risk factors for gout: high consumption of alcohol, sugary drinks and foods high in fructose. PubMed Central

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